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References for: Indian numerals



  1. G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
  2. G G Joseph, The crest of the peacock (London, 1991).
  3. R Kaplan, The nothing that is : a natural history of zero (London, 1999).
  4. L C Karpinski, The history of arithmetic (New York, 1965).
  5. K W Menninger, Number words and number symbols : A cultural history of numbers (Boston, 1969).
  6. D E Smith and L C Karpinski, The Hindu-Arabic numerals (Boston, 1911).


  1. R C Gupta, Spread and triumph of Indian numerals, Indian J. Hist. Sci. 18 (1) (1983), 23-38.
  2. L Y Lam, Linkages : exploring the similarities between the Chinese rod numeral system and our numeral system, Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 37 (4) (1987), 365-392.
  3. J S Pettersson, Indus numerals on metal tools, Indian J. Hist. Sci. 34 (2) (1999), 89-108.
  4. R K Sarma, A note on the use of words for numbers in ancient Indian mathematics, Math. Education 7 (1973), A44-A45.
  5. K Vogel, Uses of letters and Indian numerals in Byzantium (Greek), Neusis No. 5 (1996), 75-81; 170.

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A comprehensive bibliography on place value systems and numerical notations



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