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WORSHIP - THE HINDU WAY



The word Puja originates from the Dhathu "Puj", which means to worship, to honor, to welcome. The root of the word Puja is "Yaja" Deva Poojaayaam" means the service or activities that one cannot avoid from doing to propitiate or please God.

Every country, state, religion, caste, family and even individual has its/their/his/her own belief and ways of performing Puja. Whatever may be the method or system or practice that one adopts or follows, there are, as per Hindu scriptures 4, 5 (Panchopachar), 8, 10 (Dasopachar), 13, 16 (Shodashopachar), 24, 32, 64 or 108 types of Upacharas or activities or services to propitiate God.

The daily worship generally consists of sixteen phases or items according to a conventional practice usually referred to as Shodasopachara Puja. These sixteen items are not always necessarily the same throughout. They differ from occasion to occasion and may be from place to place or person to person. But a common sequence popularly followed by majority of the devotees is as follows:


 

QUOTE

1. Avahanam - Invocation
2. Asanam- Offering a seat
3. Padyam- Water for washing the feet
4. Arghyam- Water for washing the hands
5. Achamaneeyam- A few drops of water for sipping
6. Snanam- Bathing with water, milk or honey
7. Vastram- Garments to cover the body
8. Yajnopaveetam- The sacred thread placed across the left shoulder and the right bottom part of the trunk
9. Gandham- Sandal paste
10. Pushpam- Flower or flowers
11. Dhoopam- Burning incense for fragrance and to intensify the feelings of devotion
12. Deepam- Lighting to remove darkness, symbolizes enlightenment
13. Naivedyam- Food for nourishment
14. Tamboolam- Betel leaves with nut and other ingredients, a condiment that signifies completion of a meal.
15. Neerajanam- Offering of camphor enkindled to have a better look of the Supreme both within and without
16. Atma Pradakshina Namaskaram- Prostration before the Lord as a mark of self-surrender after making a parikrama.



(1) Aavahan or Invocation or Praan Prathishta: We invite the Invisible Supreme Soul to manifest through the idol or photo that we keep in front of us for our prayers or Puja, or we imagine that God is residing in it or we imagine that God manifested in and through the idol or photo accepting our prayers or imagine that the idol or photo has life and God is accepting our prayers through the Idol or photo.

(2) Asan or Simhasan or Throne: As we cannot and do not have the capacity to offer a magnificent throne to Lord, Who is the owner of the whole universe, we offer HIM a seat, according to our capacity, thinking that HE feels comfortable, and start decorating it inwardly with all kinds of precious stones, jewels, gold, flowers, cushions, etc., the best we can think of and request the Lord to be seated to accept our offerings.


(3) Padyam. This includes the symbolic offering of water for washing the feet. This custom dates back since the days when very few used to wear shoes or chappals and those days without convenient transport facility. Offering water to wash the dust and dirt off the feet. It is also a sign of respect to offer water to wash one's feet. We can see the references to this act in our scriptures, especially with reference to Rishis, Sages, etc. We also do Pada Puja (worshipping the holy feet) to Saints in our houses.

(4) Arghyam: As we imagine God has assumed the shape of a human being with two legs, two or four hands, one or more heads, etc., moved by our prayer, we offer HIM water with a feeling that HE would like to wash HIS hands before accepting our offerings, as we do before doing something good or important, sacred or taking food.

(5) Achaman: We do Achaman (i.e., we sip water three times with mantras like Om Govindaya Namaha, Om Narayana Namaha, Om Madhavaya Namaha, etc.) facing or sitting towards East to cleanse our inner-self (Antharangam) with the water purified with Mantras, so that any thoughts that we might have entertained either before or after starting Puja will vanish from our mind. Like this, we purify ourselves. As we cleanse our body by taking bath, we cleanse our inner-self by taking water saturated or purified with Mantras.

Again here water is offered to God with a view that HE washes HIS face. It is the tradition in our houses that whenever any guest comes from outside, after ushering him into the house, we give him water for drinking as well as washing or at least sprinkling water on the face so that the guest feels relieved of the tiredness and strain of the journey.

(6) Snanam/Bath: Bath given to the God with Ganga Jal or milk, or honey, or with perfumed water, etc.

(7) Vastra Yugmam: Then we offer good clothes to God and decorate HIM with excellent quality clothes, according to our capacity, as we do to our children on their birthdays.

(8) Yagnopaveetam: We then offer HIM Yagnopaveetam, a sacred thread placed across the left shoulder and the right bottom part of the trunk.

(9) Gandham: We offer God scented chandan (sandal paste) so as to give coolness to HIS body. The royal kings used to do this in the olden days. We offer Oordhwapundram or decorate God with Tilak or some such decoration to God's face. The next step is Alankar God with Abharanas or jewels. As we feel that by wearing such and such ornaments, we look beautiful or we beautify ourselves with all kinds of alankaras, the same way, we should also feel that the Lord is Self only and we should decorate HIM with the same feeling and purpose so that HE looks beautiful.

(10) Pushpa Puja (Archana): We offer flowers to God with a lot of love and devotion to please HIM. Of late it has become a practice to offer broken or withered flowers, may be due to scarcity and sky-racketing prices of flowers, but, in fact, it must not be done so. God is full of compassion and mercy and HE does not protest, as HE understands our compulsions. We should offer a flower for each one of HIS sacred and kalyana name that we recite, whether it is Ashtothra or Sahasranama. Here we should always remember one very important point that most of us just throw flowers and Akshatas at God, in a routine way. But, it is not the right procedure. We should recite the names of our Lord with a lot of love and affection and with each name that we recite with love and bhava (feeling), we offer a flower to the Lord in such a way that first we bring the flower near to our chest or heart and offer it at the feet of Lord with a feeling that, Oh God! I am offering my heart (Colorful Hridaya Pushp) at Your Lotus Feet. Kindly accept it and remove all my Doshas such as Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Mada, Macharya, Irsha, Dwesha, Ahankara, etc. Kindly take me into your fold my Lord.

That is the essence or meaning behind offering colorful flowers to Lord. Bhava is very important in all our spiritual (of course, even in social) activities. The same method is applicable while offering Akshitas or Kumkum or any such offering to Lord. It should always be humble, and never routine and mechanical. In other words, Archana is the heartfelt offering of Love to God. In Archana a devotee calls God with a variety of names as a loved one is called by different names affectionately.

(11) Dhoopam: Dhoop represents the Gandh (fragrance) aspect of the senses. A Satvic sense of depicting a pure Gandha sense is the Dhoop. As we give Dhoop to babies in our residences, which is still in vogue in villages, especially in rainy season, so as to make the skin dry
and fresh and protect them from diseases like cold, etc., due to high content of water in the air, we offer Dhoop to Lord also.

(12) Deepam: Deepam is the Tejas or fire aspect. We light the lamp immediately after Dhoop with a view to see Lord more clearly and also to witness the beauty and majesty of the Lord is after alankaras. The words Tamasoma Jyothirgamaya, indicate the essence of bhava behind keeping a lamp in front of the Lord. The spiritual significance is: Oh God! Light my heart with the prakasha of knowledge and dispel the darkness of ignorance. It also signifies that the (true) Atman is revealed if one lights his heart with the lamp of Pure Love and Right Knowledge. With this bhava at heart, we light a lamp (Diya) or lamps in front of God. The other angle to this is that the lamp indicates auspicious sign. It has an important position in the Puja of Hindus.

The main reason for keeping the lamp in front of God is that it is a sign of good omen (Mangala or Shubha kaarakam). The other reason is that in the olden days, where there was no electricity or limited use of electricity, our ancestors used to keep lamp(s) in front of God, so as to see HIS image or photo or HIS Divya Rupa clearly. Probably, even today one can notice in olden temples, in the sanctum sanctorum, that they do not keep or allow electricity bulbs. They show the God to devotees with the help of Aarati. Another reason, which I feel true, is that after we decorate God we perform Aarati, immediately after offering Dhoop with an anxiety or eagerness or desire to see how the Lord looks and see the Deity to one's heart content. The light in front of the Deity will help us to see the image more clearly, especially in the smoke of Dhoopam.

(13) Naivedyam: Naivedyam is the Rasa (taste) aspect of the senses. We offer all kinds and varieties of delicious food items, which include sweets, fruits, etc., to God, with all love, as if Ma Yashoda is feeding Krishna, or Mata Sabari is offering fruits, although tasted first, to Lord Rama. See the Bhava here. In fact, I was told that coconut is not compulsory in Puja, but somehow it has become a part of it now. (The meaning and purpose of breaking a coconut is
dealt with separately and will follow later).

(14) Thaambulam/Betel Leaves: As we offer Nut-powder (Supari) or Paan to guests at the end of a meal, we offer Lord betel leaves with supari (nut powder and spices) so that HE digests easily whatever we offered to HIM to eat. Here we should not offer HIM money, as it is
offered only when we offer Dakshina.

(15) Neeraajanam: After completing all the above Upachaaraas to Lord, we do Neerajanam with a view to remove any Drishti Dosha (evil sight) as we all know that HE has a wonderful personality and added to it, HE has been decorated so well and looking so handsome that it is very difficult for a devotee to take away his sight from HIM. This we do with pure love as we do it to our own small children. It is the practice in our houses/temples that immediately after Aarati, we pay our respects to that camphor flame by putting our palms over it and putting those hands on our eyes. But, I was told that, it is wrong, because the intention behind giving Aarati is to remove any evil sight (Drishti Dosha) and also to show God more clearly to the devotees, but not for any other purpose.

As we do not pay respects to
such activity when we do it for our children, the same way, we should not do it in temples or at homes after Aarati. And that flame should be kept aside and sprinkle a few drops of water to remove Dosha, as we wash the legs and hands of our children and wipe the eyes with water, immediately after removing Drishti Dosha. Neerajanam signifies the end of Sakara or Bahya (outward) Puja and is at the end to denote that all the Doshas and impurities will vanish in thin air after burning the Ajnan in the Jnanagni or Tapas.

(16) Atma pradakshina, Mantra pushpam and Uavasana: We offer flowers and Akshatas with Mantras to Lord. It is done mainly to highlight and explain the divinity, greatness, compassion and love of God over HIS subjects or devotees. After doing all the above, if knowingly or unknowingly we commit any mistake, either in the performance of Puja or in our Bhava, we request God to forgive us, as we are human beings and our Manas or mind is subject to flirtations, and keep us in HIS Karuna Dhrishi (Merciful eyes) always so that we will not repeat such mistakes in future. Also we request HIM to bless us as we wish to offer all the above upacharas every day to HIM. Then we do Pradakshina, not only around the Lord, but also around ourselves, to indicate that my Lord you are in me as Soul and doing Atmapradakshina means doing Pradakshina around YOU only.

Then we do pranam (prostration) and then offer Kshama Prardhana or Aparatha Kshamapana, with a view to offer all the mistakes at the Lord's Lotus Feet. Having manifested in and through the idol that we kept in our Puja Mandir and accepted our prayers and sevas, now we request the Lord to take rest in our hearts and live there forever, so that the divinity is manifested through us and ultimately we realize our innate divinity within and without, in other words, we merge in HIM thus removing the ignorance forever. The Sevas both in Sakara or Nirakara procedures are performed with a view to reach Him ultimately, which is known as Puja. In the Sakara or Bahya Puja style, the devotee directly (if he knows the significance) or indirectly worships his Ishta Daivam through offer of sevas in the shape of external articles to the object of worship, thereby involving Pancha Tanmatras (i.e., Sabda, Sparsa, Rupa, Rasa and Gandha) or Panch Jnanedriyas (i.e., Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue and Skin) while offering Dhoopa, Deepa, Naivedya, Alankaras to the Lord.

The gross aspects of the Pancha Tanmatras in Puja are the Pancha Upacharas. They are Pushp, Dhoop, Deep, Naivedya and Gandh. The corresponding Pancha Mahabhoothas (Five Elements) are Sky/Ether (Akasam), Air (Vayu), Fire (Agni), Water (Jal) and Earth (Prithvi), which indicate respectively the vastness of heart, the fastness of manas, the tejas, the amrit and the patience (saburi) aspects of human being. In Manasik Puja, the devotee mentally dedicates everything at the sacred feet of his Ishta Daivam. In fact, Manasika Puja is considered superior to Bahya Puja. In other words, Puja should not and cannot be a rigid and systematic procedure, without which one cannot offer oneself to God, but it should be more of love oriented or bhava pradhana offering to God.

Then only the heart opens up, otherwise it would be a routine and mechanical procedure to be followed. Through Puja, the devotee's love and sense of belonging for his Ishta Daivam grow and thus the Bhava or relationship with Ishta Daivam matures and finally the devotee will succeed in establishing in his real self (Swa-swarup) through gradually experiencing oneness with the Ishta Daivam. Having understood what Puja is, now let us try to analyze and understand the essence behind Sakara and Nirakara or Bahya and Manasika Pujas.

Arranging the Articles: First of all, before sitting in front of our Ista Daivam, we keep all articles that are required for performing Bahya Puja wholeheartedly and successfully.

Physical freshness: Purity of body is conducive in making the mind pure, so that only purity emanates from us. So, we keep ourselves fresh before we start any Puja or any sacred work in order to get only right feelings and thoughts while we are performing Puja, and also emanate only such statements from us. Freshness also helps us to keep our concentration on what we are doing or offering to God. One should wear vibhuthi, chandan, namam or kumkum. Then we do Pranayamam before Sankalpam.

Sankalpam: Sankalp or Sankalpam, literally means, taking a firm decision or forming a firm opinion. No work can be successfully accomplished without dedication. Like-wise, no Puja can be performed satisfactorily without invoking HIS blessings through sincere devotion and complete surrender. We pray to Lord to bless us to successfully fulfil our resolve to worship HIM through performing HIS Puja with heart, mind, soul and all senses together. Here in Puja, Sankalpam means reciting those words which will indicate what, who and where we are. Unless one starts any work, especially the one which is being done for the society at large, with pure and sacred sankalpa, the end result will be disastrous. Sruti Smruti Puranokta Phalaprapyartham, which means, that in Srutis (Vedas), Smrutis (Manu Smriti, etc.) and Puranas, it has been said that any karma being done with a desire should be started with a pure and sacred Sankalpa to get the expected result. The idea behind praying for the Sankalpasiddhi is to eradicate the feeling of doership or Ahankar.

In other words, the result of Puja is thus offered to God. To achieve this object, first one should visualise the purpose or goal and plan meticulously what work should be done to achieve that particular goal and then start seeing the other points such as, who is the doer, where it is being held, when it is being performed, what is being done and what is the result of it. Once these have been identified and verified, then one needs to take Dhruda Nischay (firm resolve or Sankalpam) to do it according to the prescribed rules and regulations of that particular karma. These points have been included, probably, to make the devotee know and remember the place, the year, the month, the gotram, birth star, the thithi (star) or day, etc.

I personally feel that it was included in our system or tradition in olden days because the people from Brahmana varna were ordained to do all Puja ceremonies, astrological predictions, ceremonies in temples and society, etc., and if they do not remember the important points such as the time, day and date, the position of grahas, the name of the month or year or the relevant thithi, etc., they may err in their decisions and calculations resulting in wrong predictions. Now it has become a part and parcel of the Puja so as to tell God every day in which Kal(time)/Yug we are in, where (which area) we are offering Puja, which is the current year (name of the year -- there 60 names), month, ayana (side), paksha (shukla/krishna - i.e., first half or second half of the month) date and day (thithi), etc.

Kalasa Sthapanam or Kumbha: This involves invoking Lords Vishnu, Rudra and Brahma, four Vedas, Gayathri, waters from all oceans and sacred rivers, such as, Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari, Krishna, Thungabhadra, Saraswati, Narmada, Sindhu, Cauvery, etc., in the water of Panchapatra, then sanctifying the vessel with Gandham, Kumkum, Akshata and Pushpam. After invocation, the Kalasodaka has to be sprinkled on all Puja materials and the persons performing Puja for purification.If Sankhapooja is to be done, then purified water has to be filled in the Sankha, then Puja offered to Sankha add a few drops of Sankhodaka to the vessel and then sprinkle the water on Puja materials and the persons performing Puja or Self (Atmanam ca Prokshyan). Then, Ghantanadam is to be done. Kumbha means water-pot. It symbolises fullness. Sanyasins and eminent persons are welcomed with a Purna-Kumbha (a pitcher filled with holy water). All the sacred rivers like Ganta, Yamuna, Saraswati, Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri, etc., are supposed to flow into the Kumbha, filling it.The Kumbha stands for generative power. Hence it is associated with the Divine Mother, the Grant Creation.

In worship, the deity is invoked to enter the Kumbha, remain there throughout the Puja and then go back to His or Her own abode. As the Kumbha is meant to serve as a temporary
image of the deity, its various components are equated with various parts of the deity. Thus the jar represents the body of the deity; the water in it stands for blood; the nine gems (navaratnas) placed in it represent the nine-fold spiritual power (siddhis); the kusha grass in the pitcher stands for blood vessels; the triple strands of yarn over the mouth of the jar stands for the nerves; the tower wound around the vessel is the skin, the coconut placed at the mouth of the jar represents the face, the kusha grass over the coconut stands for Lord Siva and the mango leaves above everything else stand for the matted locks of Siva.

During Kumbha-abhishekam the sanctified water in the vessel is poured over the pinnacle of the vimana above the garbhagriha of the deity. The is the climax of the consecration ceremony and huge crowds of men, women and children throng to get a sprinkling of the sacred water on their heads (taken from the Vedanta Kesari, February 2000 - A Monthly Journal of the Ramakrishna Order) The absolute God cannot be grasped by the human mind, so we require symbols.

If the devotee is very philosophical man, his symbol may be very abstract in nature: a vast expanse, the infinite sky, something unlimited. These are other images and conceptions, though subtle. A person who cannot think in an abstract way prefers to have more concrete symbols. So he has been given forms of the anthropomorphic type.

This is consistent with the three major conceptions of God: God the Absolute; the personal God with qualities, such as kindness and love, but no form; and the personal God with both form and qualities. In Hinduism, we find that the personal God has not only qualities, but a variety of forms as well. And why should this not be so? From a psychological point of view, the ideal needs to be presented according to the understanding of the devotee, all the while reminding him that it is through the worship of the form that he is to reach the formless aspect of the divine. This is the idea behind image worship in India. Image worship does not mean that some inert substance such as wood or stone is being worshipped. The image is also not a mere icon. It is a symbol of the lord. It reminds the devotee of the Lord, just as a photograph reminds us of the thing photographed (Ref. "Concept of God in Hinduism" by Swami Swahananda from The Vedanta Kesari, February 2000)

The idol is a support for us in spiritual childhood. A form or image is necessary for worship in the beginning. It is an external symbol of God for worship. It is the reminder of God. The material image calls up the mental data. Steadiness of the mind is obtained by image worship. The worshipper will have to associate the idea of infinity, omnipotence, purity, perfection, freedom, holiness, truth and omnipresence. It is not possible for all to fix the mind Absolute. A concrete form is necessary for practicing concentration. To behold God everywhere and to practice the presence of God is not possible for the ordinary man. Idol worship is the easiest form of worship for the modern man. Idol worship is not just limited to Hinduism. Christians worship the Cross. They have the image of Cross in their mind. The Muslims keep the image of the Kaaba stone when they kneel and do prayers. The people of the whole world keep some image or the other in their mind. The mental image is also a form of idol. Everyone is thus idol worshipper.

Pictures, drawings, symbols etc. are all forms of idol only. Idols are not the idle fancies of sculptors, but are shining channels through' which the heart of the devotee is attracted to God and flows towards him. Many would say, "Oh God is an all pervading formless being and how can God be confined to this idol!" Are these people ever conscious of His omnipresence? Do they always see Him alone in everything? No, It is their ego that prevents them from bowing to the idols of God and with that motive, they put this excuse forward. The idol is a substitute or symbol. The image in a temple though it be made of stone, wood or metal is precious for a devotee as it bears the mark of his Lord, as it represents something which he holds holy and eternal. A flag is only a small piece of painted cloth, but to a soldier it stands something that he holds very dear. He is prepared to give up his life in defending his flag. Similarly, the image is very dear to a devotee. It speaks to him in its own language of devotion. The image arouses devotion in the devotee. A piece of ordinary white paper or colored paper has no value. We throw it away. However, if there is the stamp of Government on the paper (currency note), we keep it safe in pocket. Even, so an ordinary piece of stone has no value for us. We throw it away. However, if we behold the stone idol, we all bow our heads with folded palms, because there is the stamp of beloved lord on the stone. When you worship an image, we do not say; "this image has come from Punderpur. It was bought by Shriram. Its weight is 50 lbs. It is made of white marble. It has cost me Rs. 500/-" No! We superimpose all the attributes of the Lord on the image and pray. When our devotion and meditation become intense and deep, we do not see the stone image. We behold the Lord only who is pure Consciousness. Image worship is very necessary for beginners. By worshipping the idol, the Lord is pleased. The idol is made up of the five elements. The five elements constitute the body of the Lord. The idol remains an idol, but the worship goes to the Lord. If you shake hands with a man, he is highly pleased. You have touched only a small part of his body and yet he is happy. He smiles and welcomes you.

Even so, the Lord is highly pleased when a small portion of his cosmic body is worshipped. An idol is a part of the body of the Lord. The whole world is His body. The devotion goes to the Lord. The worshipper superimposes on the images the Lord and his attributes. This is one of the easiest forms of self-realization. It is one that suits the majority of people today. A look at the picture of God will elevate our mind to divine heights. This is truly a wonder and a miracle. The idol or photograph of any God or Goddess is not just Stone or paper or whatever other material but is a symbol of the true deity so that we can focus our attention to the deity. With constant Puja, even a personal photo or idol worshipped by a devotee acquires a distinct identity of its own and starts responding to the devotee.

The idol of a deity in a temple is all the more powerful since the Deity is invoked by Mantras and regular Pujas. As prescribed in the AGAMA SASTRAS, Yantras are also installed under the idols to increase the power of the deity many fold. Thus a powerful aura is built around the idol. Any object, be it ARATI, kum kum, turmeric, sandal paste, or holy water or even the clothes used to adorn the deity acquire a part of the aura. Thus we get a part of the deity's powerful and beneficial aura when we bring any of these sacred objects near to us. Scriptures say that humans have nine RANDHRAS, (Navarandhras) i.e., orifices in our physical as well as astral bodies. Out of them, seven are in our head (mouth, two nostrils, two ears, and two eyes). The other two are meant for excretion of waste products from the body situated at the posterior end. Thus when we bring the palms, which are placed over the ARATI to our eyes, not only our eyes but our nostrils too get charged with the positive aura. When we hear the hymns and bells, our ears get purified. When we take the holy water our mouth gets purified. When the SATHA GOPURAM (the bell shaped piece in a Hindu temple with the feet of the God, placed on the head of the devotee by the priest at the end of the worship) is placed on our head our SAHASRA CHAKRA gets charged.

Thus ARATI and other holy articles which are taken into the close proximity of the deity and are then given to us act as carriers or vehicles of the positive energy from the deity to us. The purpose is thus probably different from the ARATI given to small children to protect them from evil eye. The first is of course to do with light. Many temples in India are dimly lit and Arati gives an opportunity to get a better view of the God. Thus the light is physical and the devotion it evokes in the mind of the devotee helps kindle the spiritual light. While Arati is performed with many types of lamps, camphor is the most common ingredient in all temples. Camphor has excellent medicinal properties; especially it protects against many diseases in a hot climate that pervades most of India. The camphor and other aromatic substances purify the atmosphere and when the devotees place their palms over the Arati and bring the palms to their eyes and nose, they absorb the medicinal benefits. This is born out by the books on Homeopathy. The camphor used for Arati lasts for a little time thus signifying the short span of human life and the Avidya or Agnana caused by the attachment Maya, in the shape of physical and sensual pleasures. Thus, Arati inspires the devotee to seek God who is permanent and all pervading. "Make hay while the sun shines" is a popular adage. Since Arati lasts for a little time only, it compels the devotee to focus his attention on the God.


Bells are usually rung while the Arati is given. The rhythmic sounds of the bells have a nice soothing and calming effect on our mind and help us seeing and sensing the shapeless God in the physical image that is being worshipped in front of us. In many temples, the Arati is also accompanied by chanting of Vedic Mantras or beautiful songs, which extol the virtues of the presiding deity, especially the all-pervasiveness. This activity reinforces the devotion of the devotee in his chosen path to reach spiritual enlightenment. Shri Sri Yogananda Paramahansa said, "When an offering is made of flowers or incense or flame from oil lamps or candles on the altar, they represent the devotion of man to God. The flowers symbolize the fragrant love of the devotee; the incense conveys reverence; the flame typifies the light of calmness in which is revealed the Divine Deity, residing on the altar of the heart" One may see the ritual of worship not as a mere physical exercise but as a real means through a communication between the self and the supreme is established. Understanding of such a communication is essential to reap the harvest of spiritual benefits.. Rituals may not be limited to the act of reinforcing one's stance on earth, a religious identity. It should be the vehicle that leads one to the understanding of the entity that is fundamental to the origin of all religions. Such a communication can only be unifying and not divisive.


This series may be aptly concluded by a quote from Ishopanishad, the mention of which is also made in Sri Sai Satcharitha: Isa vasya midam sarvam yatkinch jagatyam jagat tena tyaktena bhumjidha ma grudhah kasya cit dhanam God is omnipresent and HE owns this universe. We should, therefore, enjoy it with a feeling of sacrifice, to the extent that is necessary for us and the rest should be left to others in the society and never ever feel jealous of others.

Jai Bharath

Introduction to tharpanam

 

     Introduction to  Tharpanam (Oblations to the manes)

                             Compiled

                                   By

                         Ramachander.P.R.               

 

  Tharpanam means “That offering which satisfies”. But what we mean by the word Tharpanam is the offering of water mixed with gingelly to the manes.(dead ancestors).Though we have several ancestors, this offering is addressed to three generations of father, grand father and great grand father along with their wives  in our family and maternal grand father, his father and grand father along with their wives in our mothers birth family. Only those whose father is dead are eligible to do Tharpanam. If maternal grand father is alive Tharpanam should not be done for his family but restricted to our family.

    All the manes are supposed by our religion to live in the Pithru loka for some time and either be reborn as any being or go to lokas like deva loka, Vaikunta etc or even attain salvation by getting mixed with god. The pithru loka is populated by three group of pithru devas viz, Vasu, Rudra and Adhithya. These devas receive our oblations and make it reach to our manes wherever they are  and in whichever form they are. The pithru loka is supposed to be on the unseen side of the moon. This portion gets exposed to sun on the new moon days. It is according to our concept lunch time for the people populating the pithru loka. These pithrus, since they have left the world are solely dependent on only their progeny to feed them. This feeding is done through Tharpanam. It is believed that if Tharpanam is not done out Pithru devas will curse us so that we may not have male descendents to offer tharpanam to us.

  There are several type of tharpanams: -

1.Gunda tharpanam- the tharpanam which is done in the first ten days of death.

2.Brahma yagna tharpanam-This is the oblation supposed to be done daily to the devas, rishis and pithrus.

3.Parheni tharpanam- this is the tharpanam which is supposed to be done on the next day after annual sraddha .This at present is being done after sraddha on the same day , because the priest does not have time to come the next day. Here the tharpanam is offered only to ones pithru varga (paternal side)

4 The regular tharpanam which is supposed to be done on all amavasyas. Four Month beginnings viz mesha, karkidaga, thula and makara and  eclipses.Our books have asked us to perform tharpanam on 96 days in a year but this is not being done nowadays.

   Several acharyas have codified the method of tharpanam. Some of them are Apasthabha, Bodhayana, Drahyayana What is given below is the manthras and method of the Apasthabha sutra.of Yajur veda. There is slight differences in the sankalpam among Iyers and Iyengars.Both versions are given here.It is understood that the tharpanam for rik vedis is almost similar but that for Sanma Vedis is different. There is also differences brought about by local practice and family tradition. People are advised to follow their traditions strictly. They have precedence over what is written down here. For example in many families tharpanam is done without wearing Vibhuti or Namam but there are certain families who do tharpanam wearing these. Some people do avahanams of Pithrus on two koorchas. Some on one koorcha and some on spread durbhas..

There are several rules regarding tharpanam though many of them are not being followed by most of the people.. They are:-

1.On the day of Tharpanam, till tharpanam is completed we are not supposed to drink/eat anything.

2.On the day of tharpanam, the daily rituals like Sandhya vandhana have to be first performed. Then before tharpanam one more bath has to be taken.

3.Wet cloth should not be worn during tharpanam nor is it right to wear cloth which was washed a day before and dried. The cloth has to be made wet the same day and dried. Pure white silk cloth can also be worn, but wearing this silk cloth you should not have eaten any food. If wet cloth is not dry, it should be  seven times shaken dry in wind before wearing it.

4.Except the tharpanam during eclipse all other tharpanams are to be done after 12 noon. Considering the difficulty, our law givers have agreed that it can be done after 8.30 AM.

5.As mentioned earlier nothing should be eaten or drunk before performance of Tharpanam.

6.Oblations should be done with hand full of water and not drops or spoon full of water.

7.The water should be poured out using the space between the thumb and the four fingers.

8.Every time a pinch of black til has to be taken. Care should be taken not to take it using the thumb and the index finger.

9.Pithru tharpanam should always be done with poonal hanging from the right shoulder to the left side of the body.

10.The pavithram for pithru tharpanam should be made out of three durbha and the koorcham should be made of  7 or 9 durbhas.

11.We should preferably sit on seat made of durbha(durbhasanam) while doing tharpanam  and in its absence put few durbhas on the place we are going to sit,

12.Silver vessels are prescribed for used during tharpanam. If not available copper vessels can be used. Under no circumstance should steel or other metal vessels are to be used.

 13.Tharpanam should be done facing east or south. It is believed that it either should be done in our homes or in public holy places like shore of the river, sea active you happen to do it in the place belonging to some one else. We are supposed to compensate the owner of the property.

14.If Amavasya and the first of the month in which tharpanam has to be performed comes on the same day, then tharpanam for the sankramanam(first of the month) should be done.

 

 

.                                                Tharpanam*

 

1.Perform  Achamanam

   Take minute quantities of water(just sufficient to soak one grain of black gram) three times in the right hand and take it with the following manthra.

1.Om Achyuthaya nama  2,Om Ananthaya nama 3.Om Govindaya nama

Then

Touch with thumb both cheeks saying kesava -Narayana

Touch with ring finger both eyes saying Madhava –govinda

Touch with the first finger both sides of nose saying  Vishno-Madhusoodana

Touch with little finger both ears saying  Trivikrama-Vamana

Touch  with the middle finger both shoulders  saying  Sreedhara-Hrishi kesa

Touch with all fingers the belly button saying Padmanabha

Touch with all fingers the head saying  Damodara

 

A; For Smarthas

 

2.Ganapathi dyanam

 

Recite the following manthra slowly hitting the forehead with both fists together.:-

Shuklambaradharam  Vishunum Sasi Varnam ChathurBhujam,

Prasanna Vadanam Dyayeth Sarva Vigna Upa Santhaye.

 

 

3.Do Pranayamam.

Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:-

 

Om Bhoo

Om Bhuva

Ogum Suva

Om Maha

Om Jana

Om Thapa

Ogum Sathyam

 Om Tatsa vithur varenyam  Bargo devasya dhi mahi  dhiyo yona prachodayath

Om Apa

Jyothj rasa

Amrutham brahma

Bhoorbuvasuvarom

Touch the ears three times saying

Om, Om , Om

 

4.Do Sankalpam

 

Mamo Partha Samastha Duritha kshaya dwara Sri Parameshwara Preethyartham.

Apavithra pavithro va  Sarvavastham gathopi va,

Ya smareth  pundarikaksham  sa bahyanthara suchi

Manasam vachikam paapam  karmana samuparjitham

Sri Rama smarane naiva  vyapohathi na samsaya

 

Sri Rama-Rama Rama

 

Thidir Vishnu thada vaara nakshatram  Vishnureva cha,

Yogascha karanam Chaiva sarvam Vishnu mayam jagat

 

Sri Govinda Govinda Govinda

 

B:For Sri Vaaishnavas of Vada Kalai

    

Do Pranayamam.

Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:-

 

Om Bhoo

Om Bhuva

Ogum Suva

Om Maha

Om Jana

Om Thapa

Ogum Sathyam

 Om Tatsa vithur varenyam  Bargo devasya dhi mahi  dhiyo yona prachodayath

Om Apa

Jyothj rasa

Amrutham brahma

Bhoorbuvasuvarom

Touch the ears three times saying

Om, Om , Om

And then chant the following manthras:-

 

1.Srimad venkata nadarya kavi kargika kesari

   Vedanthacharya varyo me sanni datham sada hruthi

2.Gurubhya  tad gurubyascha  namo vaga  made mahe,

   Vruni mahe  cha tatrath  you dampathi jagatham pathi

3.Swasesha bhoodeth  mayaa  sweeyai sarva parichadai,

   Vidahthum  preethamath manam deva prakramade swayam

 4.Shuklam baradaram vishnum sasi varnam chadur bhjam

    Prasanna vadanam dyayeth  sarva vigno upa santhaye

  5.Yasyad  viratha vakthradhya parishadya para satham,

     Vignam nignanthi vishvaksenam tham asraye.

 

C:For Sri Vaishnavas of Then Kalai

 

Do Pranayamam.

Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:-

 

Om Bhoo

Om Bhuva

Ogum Suva

Om Maha

Om Jana

Om Thapa

Ogum Sathyam

 Om Tatsa vithur varenyam  Bargo devasya dhi mahi  dhiyo yona prachodayath

Om Apa

Jyothj rasa

Amrutham brahma

Bhoorbuvasuvarom

Touch the ears three times saying

Om, Om , Om

 

Then Chant the following manthras:-

1.Shuklam baradaram vishnum sasi varnam chadur bhjam

    Prasanna vadanam dyayeth  sarva vigno upa santhaye

2..Yasyad  viratha vakthradhya parishadya para satham,

     Vignam nignanthi vishvaksenam tham asraye

 

WHAT FOLLOWS IS COMMON TO SMARTHAS AND VAISHNAVAS OF THENKALAI AND VADAKALAI.

  

 

Adya Sri  Bhagavatha maha purushasya  Vishnor Agnaya  pravarthamanasya  Adhya Brahmana  Dweethiya parardhe  Swetha  Varaha kalpe  Vaivaswatha manvanthare  ashta vimsathi thame  kali yuge  prathame padhe ,jambu dweepe , Bharatha varshe,  Bharatha Khande , Mero Dakshine Parswe , Sakabdhe  asmin varthamane  vyvaharike Prabhavadeenam sashtya  samvatsaranam madhye  (name of the year) *                   Nama samvatsare  , (dakshina./uttara               ayane, (name of the season)   rithou, (name of the month in Sanskrit) mase,  (Krishna/shukla)              pakshe   ,   Adhya  (Name of the thidhi-moon phase)  Punya thithou (name of the day in Sanskrit)vasra yukthayam  (name of the star in Sanskrit) nakshatra yukthayam      Shubha yoga –Shubha karana,  Evam guna viseshana visishtayam  asyam  (Name of the thidhi)     Punya thithou,

                 ( Change the position of poonal from left shoulder to right shoulder(LEFT MODE))

(Your Gothram)     Gothranam (Names of father, grand father, great grand father)**                                                                                    Sarmanam,  Vasu-Rudra-adithya swaroopanam  asmad Pithru –Pithamaha-Pithru Pithamahanam , (your Gothram)  Gothraa (Names of mother. Grand mother, great grand mother[1] )  Namnee , Vasu-Rudra-Adithya swaroopa  Asmad Mathru[2]-pithamahi-Prapithamahischa, (Your maternal grand father’s gothram)  gothraanam  (names of maternal grand father, his father and his grand father)                                            Sarmanam vasu –rudra -adithya swaroopanam  asmad mathamaha, mathru pithamaha, mathru prapithamahanam, (Your maternal grand father’s gothram)     gothraa   (Names of maternal  grand mother, maternal great grand mother, Grand mother of  maternal grand father)   Namnee  , vasu-rudra –adithya swaroopa  asmad  mathamahi[3]-mathru pithamahi, mathru prapithamahinam  Ubhaya vamsa pithrunaam akshayya thripthyartham    amavasya[4]   punya kale    Thila tharpanam karishye.

    (throw away the Durbha (only) held round the fingers along with Pavithram. Change position of poonal to the left shoulder(usual mode), touch water with finger, change position of poonal  to right shoulder(left mode))

                              

 

 

 

        Arrangement of Koorcham[5]

                                                    East

                                                                                 Pithru Varga Koorcham

North                                                                                                                           South

                                                                                  Mathamaha varga koorcham

                                                  Durbha         Durbha

                                                     West

 

5.Avahanam for pithru varga(Fathers side)[6]

 

      Wear the poonal in the left mode , take little ellu(black gingelly) and along with water keep on the Koorcha meant for Pithru varga while chanting the following manthras:-

1.Aayatha pithara  somya  gambhirai  padhibhi  poorvai  prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayuthwam  cha satha saaradam cha.

2.Om bhorbuvaswarom

3,Asmin koorche  (Your Gothra)  gothran   (Father’s, grand father’s and great grand father’s name) sarmana  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan  asmad pithru-pithamaha-pithrupithamahaan (Your Gothra) gothraa  (Names of mother, grand mother, great grand mother1)    namnee  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa  asmad mathru[7], pithamahi-pithrupithamahischa  dyayami avahayami.

 

6.Asanam for pithru vargam

 

     Chanting the manthra below place gingelly on the koorcha

1.Sakrudacchinnam barhirurnna mrudhu,

Syonam pithrubhyasthwa baramyaham

Asmin taseedanthu me pithara somyaa,

Pithamahaa prapithamahaaschaanugai saha.

2.Pithru-pithamaha,pithru pithamahanam mathru[8] –pithamahi –prapithamahinaam  cha idam asanam , thiladhi sakalaradhanai swarchidham

 

7.Avahanam for mathamaha varga(maternal grand fathers side)

 

Wearing  the poonal in the left mode , take little ellu(black gingelly) and along with water keep on the Koorcha meant for mathru varga while chanting the following manthras:-

1.Aayatha mathu pithara  somya  gambhirai  padhibhi  poorvai  prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayathwam  cha satha saaradam cha.

2.Om bhorbuvaswarom

3,Asmin koorche (Maternal grand father’s gothra)  gothran (Names of maternal grand father, maternal great grand father and grand father of maternal grand father)                         sarmana  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan  asmad mathamaha-mathru pithamaha-mathru prapithamaha (maternal grand father’s gothra)  gothraa  (Names of maternal grand mother, maternal great grand mother, grand mother of maternal grand father)                        namnee  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa  asmad mathamahi[9]-mathru pithamahi-mathru prapithamahischa dyayami avahayami.

 

8.Asanam for mathru vargam

     Chanting the manthra below place gingelly on the mathru varga koorcha

1.Sakrudacchinnam barhirurnna mrudhu,

Syonam pithrubhyasthwa baramyaham

Asmin taseedanthu me pithara somyaa,

Pithamahaa prapithamahaaschaanugai saha.

2.Mathamaha-mathru pithamaha-mathru prapitha mahaanaam, Mathamahi-mathru pithamahi-mathru prapithamahischa idam asanam , thiladhi sakalaradhanai swarchidham

 

9.Pithru varga tharpanam

 

Offer tharpanam with hand full of  water mixed with black ellu on the koorcham for Pithru vargam after each manthra

 

a.       Pithru tharpanam(Oblation to father)

 

1.Udheerathamvara uthparasa,

Unmadhyama  pithara somyasa

Asum ya eeyuravyaka ruthagna

Sthene avanthu  pitharo  harveshu,

   (Your gothram) Gothran  (Father’s name)                    ,

Sarmana vasu roopan  mama pithrun swadha namastharpayami.

 

2.Angeeraso  na pitharo navagwa,

Adharvano byagava somyaasa,

Thesham vayugum  sumathou  yagniyanaa mapi

Badre  soumanase syama

 (Your gothram) Gothraan  (Father’s name)                            ,

Sarmana  vasu roopan mama pithrun swadha namas tharpayami.

 

3.Aa yaanthu na pithara somyaso agni

shwatha[10]  prathibhir deva yanai

asmin yagne swadhaya maadhayanthwadhi  bruvantha[11]  they avanthasman,

(Your Gothram) gothraan  (Fathers name)                          ,

sarmana vasu roopan mama pithrun swadha namas tharpayami.

 

b.Pithamaha tharpanam (oblation to grand father)

 

 1.Oorjam vahanthiramrutham  grutham paya keelalam

Parisrutham swadha sdha tharpatatha me pithroon ,

  (your gothram)  Gothraan  (Grand fathers name)                                   ,

Sarmana  Rudra roopan mama pithaamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

2.Pithrubhya swaadhavibhya swadha nama

pithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama

Prapithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama

  (Your gothram) Gothraan  (Grand father’s name)                          ,

Sarmana Rudra roopan mama pitha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

3.Ye cheha pitharo ye cha neha,

Yagscha vidmayagm u cha na pravidma,

Agne thaan veththa yadi the jathaveda

Sthaya praththagm swadhaya madanthu

(Your gothram) Gothraan   (Grand father’s name)                           ‘

Sarmana  rudra roopan mama pithamahaan swadha namastharpayami

 

c.Prapithamaha tharpanam(oblations to great grand father)

 

a.Madhu vaathaa ruthaayathe  madhu ksharanthi sindhava

maadweer na santhwashadhi

  (Your Gothram) Gothraan  (Great grand father’s name)                                       ,

Sarmana  adithya roopaan mama prapithamahan  swadha namas tharpayami.

 

b.Madhu nakthamuthoshasi madu math parthivagam

raja madhu dhourasthu na pitha

  (Your gothram)   Gothraan   (great grand father’s name)                                  ,

Sarmana adithya roopan mama prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami

 

c.Madhumanno vanaspathir madhu magma asthu soorya,

Maadweer gavo bavanthu na

 (Your gothra) Gothraan   (great grand father’s name)                                   ,

Sarmana adhithya roopan mama prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

d.Mathru tharpanam[12](Oblations to mother)

 1.  (Your gothra)   Gothraa (mother’s name)                      

Namnee vasu roopa mama mathu swadha namastharpayami

  

2..  (Your Gothra) Gothraa   (Mother’s name)                    

Namnee vasu roopa mama mathu swadha namastharpayami

 

3. (Your Gothra)  (Gothraa   (Mother’s name)                    

Namnee vasu roopa mama mathu swadha namastharpayami

 

e.Pithamahi tharpanam[13](oblations to paternal grand mother)

1.(Your Gothra) Gothraa (Grand mother’s name)                     

Namnee Rudra roopa mama pithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

2. . (Your Gothra) Gothraa (Grand mother’s name)                       

Namnee Rudra roopa mama pithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

3. (Your gothra) Gothraa  (Grand mother’s name)                     

Namnee Rudra roopa mama pithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

f.Prapithamahi tharpanam[14](Oblations to paternal great grand mother)

1. (Your Gothra).  Gothraa   (Great grand mother’s name)                    

Namnee adithya  roopa mama prapithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

2. .(Your Gothra) Gothraa   (Great Grand mother’s name)                    

Namnee adithya  roopa mama prapithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

3. .(Your Gothra) Gothraa   (Great Grand mother’s name)                    

Namnee adithya  roopa mama prapithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

10.jnaatha jnatha  pithru varge tharpanam Oblation to unknown manes of paternal sides)

 

a.Jnaatha jnatha pithroon swadha namas tharpayami

b. Jnaatha jnatha pithroon swadha namas tharpayami

c. Jnaatha jnatha pithroon swadha namas tharpayami

        Oorjam vahantheeramrutham grutham paya keelalam parisrutham swadha  stha tharpayatha me pithroon trupyatha thrupyatha thrupyatha.

 

 

 

11.Mathamaha varga tharpanam (oblations to ancestors of maternal grand father)

   

Offer tharpanam with hand full of  water mixed with black ellu on the koorcham for Pithru vargam after each manthra

a.Matha maha  tharpanam(Oblation to maternal grand father)

1.Udheerathamvara uthparasa,

Unmadhyama  pithara somyasa

Asum ya eeyuravyaka ruthagna

Sthene avanthu  pitharo  harveshu

(Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal grand father’s name)                   ,

Sarmana vasu roopan  mama matha mahaan swadha namastharpayami.

 

2.Angeeraso  na pitharo navagwa,

Adharvano byagava somyaasa,

Thesham vayugum  sumathou  yagniyanaa mapi

Badre  soumanase syama

(Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal grand father’s name)                                                                     

Sarmana  vasu roopan mama matha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

3.Aa yaanthu na pithara somyaso agni

shwatha  prathibhir deva yanai

asmin yagne swadhaya madhayanthwadhi  bruvantha  the avanthasman,

 (Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal grand father’s name)                                                                         ,sarmana vasu roopan mama matha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

b.Mathru pitha maha tharpanam (oblation to grand father of mother)

 

 1.Oorjam vahanthiramrutham  grutham paya keelalam

Parisrutham swadha sdha tharpayatha me pithroon ,

 (Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal great grand father’s name)                                                                           

Sarmana  Rudra roopan mama mathu pithaamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

2.Pithrubhya swaadhavibhya swadha nama

pithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama

Prapithamahebhya swadhavibhya swadha nama

(Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal great grand father’s name)                                                                              

Sarmana Rudra roopan mama mathu pitha mahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

3.Ye cheha pitharo ye cha neha,

Yagscha vidmayagm u cha na pravidma,

Agne thaan veththa yadi the jathaveda

Sthaya praththagm swadhaya madanthu

(Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal great grand father’s name)                                               

Sarmana  rudra roopan mama mathu pithamahaan swadha namastharpayami

 

c.Mathu Prapithamaha tharpanam(oblations to great grand father of mother)

1.Madhu vaathaa ruthaayathe  madhu ksharanthi sindhava

maadweer na santhwashadhi

(Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal grand father’s grand father’sname)                                                                                       

Sarmana  adithya roopaan mama mathu prapithamahan  swadha namas tharpayami.

 

2.Madhu nakthamuthoshasi madu math parthivagam

raja madhu dhourasthu na pitha

(Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal grand father’s grand father’sname)                                                                                                                                          

Sarmana adithya roopan mama mathu prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami

 

3.Madhumanno vanaspathir madhu magma asthu soorya,

Maadweer gavo bavanthu na

 (Maternal grand father’s Gothra) gothran (Maternal grand father’s grand father’sname)                                                                                                                                                      

Sarmana adhithya roopan mama mathu prapithamahaan swadha namas tharpayami.

 

d.Mathamahi tharpanam[15](Oblations to maternal grand mother)

1.(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal grand mother’s name)                     

Namnee vasu roopa mama mathamahi swadha namastharpayami

  

2. .(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal grand mother’s name)                                                        

Namnee vasu roopa mama mathamahi swadha namastharpayami

 

3. .(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal grand mother’s name)                                                                 

Namnee vasu roopa mama mathamahi swadha namastharpayami

 

e.Mathru Pithamahi tharpanam[16](Oblations to grand mother of mother)

1.(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal great grand mother’s name)                                                       

Namnee Rudra roopa mama mathu pithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

2. .(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal great grand mother’s name)                      

Namnee Rudra roopa mama mathu pithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

3. .(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal grand mother’s name)                      

Namnee Rudra roopa mama mathu pithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

f. Mathu Prapithamahi tharpanam[17](Oblations to great grand mother of mother)

1. .(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal grand father’s grand mother’s name)                     

Namnee adithya  roopa mama mathu prapithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

2. .(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal grand father’s grand mother’s name)                      . .                                    

Namnee adithya  roopa mama mathu prapithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

3. .(Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Maternal grand father’s grand mother’s name)                      . .                                           

Namnee adithya  roopa mama mathu prapithamahi  swadha namastharpayami

   

12.jnaatha jnatha  matha maha varga tharpanam (Oblation to unknown manes of  maternal grand father side)

a.Jnaatha jnatha mathu pithroon swadha namas tharpayami

b. Jnaatha jnatha mathu pithroon swadha namas tharpayami

c. Jnaatha jnatha mathu pithroon swadha namas tharpayami

        Oorjam vahantheeramratham grutham paya keelalam parisrutham swadha  stha tharpayatha me mathu pithroon trupyatha thrupyatha thrupyatha.

 

13.pradhakshinam

 Change poonal to usual pattern from left shoulder

(Chant and rotate in the same place clock wise)

Devathabhya pithrubhyascha maha yogibhya  eva cha

Nama swaadhai swaahayai  nithyameva namo nama.

 

Some versions ask us to chant  this Manthra for Pradakshinam

 

Namo va pitharo rasaya ,

Namo va pithara sushmaya,

Namo va pitharo jeevaya,

Namo  va pitharo swadhayai.

Namo va pitharo manyave,

Namo va pitharo ghoraya,

Pitharo namo vo ya ethasmin lokestha,

Yushmagusthe nuye asmin  loke,

Manthenu ya ethasmin lokesya,

Yuyyanthesham vasishta bhooyastha,

Asmin loke  ahanthesham vasishto bhooyasam.

 

 

14.Namaskaram (salutations)

Change poonal to the left side pattern from right shoulder

Recite with folded hands

Pithru-Pithamaha-Prapthamahebhyo nama

Mathru –pitha mahi –prapithamahebhyo nama[18]

Mathamaha -mathru pithamaha-mathru prapithamahebhyo nama.

Mathamahi-Mathu pithamahi=mathu prapathamaheebhyo nama.[19]

 

Some versions ask us to chant  this Manthra for Namaskaram

 

Uthishtatha pithara pretha soora yamasya  pantha ma na vetha puranam,

Dathadhaasmasu dravinam yachcha badhra prano bruthad bhagha dhan devatha.

 

 

Change Poonal to usual mode from left shoulder

Recite with folded hands

 

Devathhabhya pithrubhyascha maha yogibhya  eva cha

Nama swaadhayai swahaayai nithya meva namo nama.

 

15.Udwasanam [20]

 

Change Poonal to left mode i.e from right shoulder

 

1.Aayatha pithara  somya  gambhirai  pradhibhi  poorvai  prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayathwam  cha satha saaradam cha.

2.Om bhorbuvaswarom

3,Asmad koorchat  (Your gothram) gothran (Names of father, grand father, great grand father)  sarmana  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan  asmad pithru-pithamaha-pithrupithamahaan  (Your gothram)  gothraa (Names of mother, grand mother and great grand mother) namnee  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa  asmad mathru[21], pithamahi-pithrupithamahischa  yada sthanam  prathishtapayami.Shobhanarthe kshemaya punaragamanaya cha.

 

4.Aayatha  mathu pithara  somya  gambhirai  pradhibhi  poorvai  prajamasmabhyam dadhatho rayim cha deergayathwam  cha satha saaradam cha.

5.Om bhorbuvaswarom

6,Asmin koorche(maternal grand father’s gothra)  gothran  (Names of maternal grand father, maternal great grand father and his father) sarmana  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopan  asmad mathamaha-mathru pithamaha-mathru prapithamaha  (Maternal grand father’s gothra) gothraa (Names of maternal grand mother, maternal great grand mother, grand mother of maternal grand father) namnee  vasu Rudra adithya swaroopa  asmad mathamahi[22]-mathru pithamahi-mathru prapithamahischa yadasthanam prathishtapayami. Shobanarthe  kshemaaya punaragamanaya  cha

 

16.Sarva Tharpanam  (General oblations)

   Change poonal to left shoulder (usual) , remove Pavithram, keep it in the ear, do Aachamanam, Wear the Pavithram, change poonal to right shoulder,Untie the Koorchs , Take them in hand and along with water and gingelly do a single Tharpanam chanting

 

  Yesham na matha na pitha na bandhu  na anya gothreena the sarve trupthimayanthu  mayoth srushtai kusodhakai[23]

   Trupyatha, Trupyatha, Trupyatha

 

Remove pavithram  , untie and throw it away, change poonal to right shoulder and touch the water.

 

!7.Brahmarpanam

    Offer  a hand full of water chanting.

        Om Tat sat Brahmarpanamasthu

 

Do Aachamanam.

 

II. Brahma Yagnam

  

      It is recommended thast after the Tharpanam , one should perform Brahma YagnamSome familes do not do it. Please follow the practice of your family.After the tharpanam do Achamanam once more and then  apply your holy marks on the forehead and then start Brahma yagnam. This is a chanting of Vedas and oblation to devas, rishis , Vedas and pithrus.

 

1.Ganapathi dyanam

 

Recite the following manthra slowly hitting the forehead with both fists together.:-

Shuklambaradharam  Vishunum Sasi Varnam ChathurBhujam,

Prasanna Vadanam Dyayeth Sarva Vigna Upa Santhaye.

 

2.Do Pranayamam.

Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:-

 

Om Bhoo

Om Bhuva

Ogum Suva

Om Maha

Om Jana

Om Thapa

Ogum Sathyam

 Om Tatsa vithur varenyam  Bargo devasya dhi mahi  dhiyo yona prachodayath

Om Apa

Jyothj rasa

Amrutham brahma

Bhoorbuvasuvarom

Touch the ears three times saying

Om, Om , Om

 

3.Do Sankalpam

 

Mamo Partha Samastha Duritha kshaya dwara Sri Parameshwara Preethyartham.

Brahma Yagnam karishye.Brahma  yagnena yakshye.

4.Prayogam

    a.Vidhyudhasi  vidhya me paapmanam  ruthath  sathya mupaime.

Touch water .Do Achamanam three times  and after first and second  touch water ,clean the lips, and after the third  sprinkle water on left arms and left leg. Then touch head, eyes, nose and chest.

b.Then chant

Om Bhoo, tatsa vithurvarenyam

Om Suva , Bhargo devasya dheemahi,

Ogum suva .dhiyo yona prachodayath,

OM Bhoo tatsa vithurvarenyam bhargo devasya  dheemahi.

Om Bhuva , dhiyo yona prachodayath,

Ogum suva , tasa vithur varenyam bhago devasya dheemahi dhiyo yona prachodayath.

 

c.chants from all the four Vedas

 

Hari Om , Agni meele purohitham , yagnasya  devam ruthvijam.Hothaaram rathna dhathamam. Hari om (Rik veda)

 

Hari Om , Eeshethvorje  twam vayavastho payavastha , devo vassavitha prarpayathu sresta thamaya karmane.Hari om(Yajur veda)

 

Hari om, Agna aayahi  veethaye grunano havya dhathaye  ni hotha sathsi barhishi ..Hari Om (Sama veda)

 

Hari om., Sanno deveer abhishtaya aapo bhavanthu peethaye , sam yorabhistravanthu na.Hari om (Atharvana veda)

 

d. Chant “Om Bhoorbhavassuva”   and rotate little water round your head

 

e.Chant “Satyam Thapa, Sradhayam Juhomi” with folded hands

 

f.Chant thrice with folded hands

 

“Om namo brahmane. Namasthvagnaye, , nama pruthviyai, nama oshadheebhya. Namo vache, namo vachaspathaye, namo vishnave, bruhathe karomi.

 

g.Chant “Vrushtirasi  vruchame paapmanam rhuthaath  sathya mupakam

                 Deva rishi-pithru tharpanam karishye.

 

Deva Tharpanam(tharpanam with usual mode of poonal water falling through tip of fingers)

 Brahmhadhaya  ye devas than tharpayami

Sarvan devans tharpayami

Sarva deva pathnis tharpayami

Sarva deva ganans tharpayami

Sarva deva gana pathnis tharpayami

Rishi Tharpanam (Tharpanam with Poonal as garland  and water poured out by the left side of right palm)

 

Krishna dwai payanadhayo ye rishin thaan rishins tharpayami

Sarvan rishins tharpayami

Sarva rishi ganans tharpayami

Sarva rishi pathnis tharpayami

Sarva rishi gana pathis tharpayami

 

Prajapathim kaanda rishims tharpayami

Somam kanda rishims tharpayami

Agnim kanda rishims tharpayami

Viswan devaan kandarishins tharpayami

 

Samhetheer devatha upanishadhas tharpayami

Yagnigheer devatha upanishadas tharpayami

Varuneer devatha upanishadas tharpayami

Havya vaham tharpayami

Viswan devan kanda rishims tharpayami

 

Water should be poured towards ourseves chanting

 

Brahmana swayam bhuvam tharpayami

 

Viswan devan kanda rishims tharpayami

Arunan kanda rishims tharpayami

Sadasaspathims tharpayami

Rigvedam tharpayami

Yajur vedam tharpayami

Sama vedam tharpayami

Adharva vedam tharpayami

Ithihasa puranam tharpayami

Kalpam thapayami

 

h.Pithru tharpanam (Change poonal to right shoulder and pour out water by the right side of the palm)

 

Soma pithrumaan yamo angeeraswan  agni  kavya vahanaadhayo ye  pitharasthan  pithruustharpayami

Sarvaan pithruntharpayami

Sarva pithruganaans tharpayami

Sarva pithrupathnis tharpayami

Sarva pithru ganapathnis tharpayami

 

Oorjam vahanthi ramrutham  grutham keelalam  paristhrutham  swadhabhyam  tharpayatha may pithrun , thrupayatha, thrupyatha, thrupyatha

 

Pour water chanting “ Aabrahma  stambha paryantham  jagat trupyathu

Chant

Kayena vacha manase indrairva ,

Budhyathamanava prukruthai swabhavat,

Karomi yadyat sakalam parasmai,

Sriman narayanayethi samarpayami.

 

i.Put the poonal in proper position and do Aachamana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                   Summary meaning in English of various manthras used in tharpanam

1.Aachamanam

       This is a preliminary purification ceremony. Gods Achutha, Anantha and Govinda are saluted and then the self is purified by chanting the twelve names of Vishnu.

2.Ganapathi dyanam (this is not done by Vaishnavites)

     This is a prayer to the God Ganapathi who is supposed to remove all obstacles on our way in performance of any rite, in this case, “Tharpanam”

            Dressed in white thou art,

           Oh, all pervading one,

           And glowing with the colour of moon.

           With four arms, thou art, Vishnu.

           I meditate on thine ever-smiling face,

           And pray, “ Remove all obstacles on my way”.

3.Pranayamam

     This manthra is a guide to a breathing exercise as also a prayer. While chanting Om bhoo,Om Bhuva, Ogum Suva, Om Maha, om jana, om thapa, ogum satyam we are supposed to keep the left nostril closed and inhale through the right nostril. While chanting, “Om tat sa vithur varenyam bargo devasya dhee mahi, dhi yo yona prachothayad”, we are supposed to close both nostrils and hold the breath. After this the left nostril is opened and air exhaled till the end of the manthra.

   Hindus believed that that there were six holy worlds above the earth. These along with earth are remembered in the first part. These worlds are bhooloka, bhuvarloka, suvarloka, maharloka, janaloka, thapaloka and satya loka. The second part is the famous Gayathri manthram. It means

“I meditate on that savitha (the sun or the enlightenment within ourselves) which helps us in our though process, that god which is within me and that all engulfing power.”

                                               Or

“ I meditate on the most holy shining aspect of that God, who helps in brightening our thought process.”

Then the third part means “ Om is water, it is the light, it is the earth which gives the food, it is the air which supports life, and it is the ether which is spread all around .It is also the holy seven worlds.”

     By touching the nose the hands are supposed to get polluted and this is removed by touching the ears thrice.

4.Sankalpam

    This is a preliminary rite in every Vedic action. We tell why we are doing what we do and we also tell, what we are going to do every time. In some cases like the tharpanam we also tell when we are doing it and where.

     To attain the grace of God, through destruction of sins committed by me, praying the lord of all worlds,

  1.I pray god Lakshmi pathi and mention below the auspicious hour, day, star, moon phase, my knowledge base and the strength of God and salute the feets of Lord Vishnu.

   2.Whether one is in pure or impure state or whatever state one is in, just by remembering Pundarikaksha that is Lord Vishnu, I get cleaned both outside and inside.

   3.There is no doubt that the sins committed either by mind, or words or by action go away by remembering the names of Lord Rama.Rama. Rama

  4.The moon phase, the day, the star, the yoga and the happenings are all Lord Vishnu and thus the whole world is filled with Lord Vishnu.Govinda, Govinda, Govinda.

  5.In the second ionic division of lord Brahma who acted according to the wishes of the prime God Lord Vishnu, In the great period of the white Varaha, in the extended reign of Vaivasvatha manu, in the 28th time period which is the first step of Kali yuga,

   At the Indian sub continent of the Indian continent of the great Jambu island, In the south of the Meru mountain, In the year           of the saka timeperiod starting with the year Prabhava, in the                  solstice, in the                       season, in the month of                   

                       In the waning/waxing period of the moon, in the day                     of the moon crescents, in the            day,  in the                  star, in the holy period  which is for good action, which results in good,  and in the period which has many other good properties,     in the day                       of moon crescents, I do oblations with thil(gingelly) and water for destruction of all my sins and for the favour of the god, to    my father  whose name is          who is of the form of vasu, who belongs to the gothra             , to my grand father  whose name is                  who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra                         , to my great grand father  whose name is           who is of the form of adithya and who belongs to the gothra        , as also to my mother(grand mother  if she mother is alive) who is of the form of vasu and who belongs to the gothra               and whose name is           , to my grand mother (great grand mother if mother is alive) who is of the form of Rudra who belongs to the gothra           

             And whose name is              , to my great grand mother  (her mother if mother is alive) who is of the form of Adithya and who belongs to the Gothra                     and whose name is                , to my maternal grand father who is of the form of Vasu and who belongs to the gothra                  and whose name is                , to my maternal great grand father  who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra               and whose name is                          , to my great grand father of my mother  who is of the form of Adithya              and whose name is                     , to my maternal grand mother who is of the form of vasu, who belongs to the gotra        and whose name is         , to my maternal great grand mother who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra               and whose name is              , to my great grand mother of my mother  who is of the form of adithya  who belongs to the gothra               and whose  name is                   .for their perennial satisfaction ,                   

 

 

5.Avahanam(For  my fathers side)

1.Hey revered manes, who have observed soma yaga, please travel through the royal  path , and take part in this rite, which has been adopted by your ancestors. And bless me with children wealth and long life,

2.Om is the sound of the holy lands, which are above this earth.

3.I meditate on my father, grandfather, great grandfather whose names are                               

                                   who were belonged to the                         gothra and  whose respective forms are that of Vasu, rudhra and adhithya and my mother, grand mother and great grand mother [24] whose names are                                          who belonged to the           

             gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, Rudhra and Adhithya and request them to occupy this koorcham.

 

6.Asanam (For my fathers side)

  1.Hey leaves of Durbha plant, I spread thine very soft leaves , which were only cut once here so that my manes can sit on you. Let my father, grandfather, great grandfather who are of the form of the moon sit on you along with their companions.

 2.I give seat to my father, grandfather, great grandfather and my mother, grandmother and great grandmother[25] and worship them with gingelly.

 

7.Avahanam(For  my maternal grand father’s  side)

1.Hey revered manes, who have observed soma yaga, please travel through the royal  path , and take part in this rite, which has been adopted by your ancestors. And bless me with children wealth and long life,

2.Om is the sound of the holy lands, which are above this earth.

3.I meditate on my maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather,  grandfather of maternal grandfather whose names are                              

                                   who were belonged to the                         gothra and  whose respective forms are that of Vasu, rudhra and adhithya and my maternal grand mother, maternal great grand mother and  grand mother of  maternal grand father [26] whose names are                                          who belonged to the           

             gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, Rudhra and Adhithya and request them to occupy this koorcham.

 

8.Asanam (For my maternal grand fathers side)

  1.Hey leaves of Durbha plant, I spread thine very soft leaves , which were only cut once here so that my manes can sit on you. Let my maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather,  grand father of maternal grandfather who are of the form of the moon sit on you along with their companions.

 2.I give seat to my maternal grand father, maternal great grand father, grand father of my maternal grand father and my maternal grand mother, maternal great grand mother and  grand mother of my maternal grand father[27] and worship them with gingelly.

 

9.Oblations to paternal ancestors

 

a. Oblations to father

1.Let all those manes who are in the earth because they did not perform dutiful rites. Those manes who are great because they carried out fire sacrifices and those of average stature because they performed  the rites prescribed to them, receive my oblations and bless me. Let those who do not trouble  and know about the rites that I perform  save me. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.       

 

2.Our manes who are known  by names such as Angeeras, atharwas, and brugus ,are of very great character and they all have great affection to their descendents. Let them who should be worshipped by doing fire sacrifices be is our mind doing good and bless us. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.

 

3.Let my manes who have not done fire sacrifices but have reached pithru loka arrive here by the path taken by Gods. Let them get satisfied by this offering of food mixed with water  and let them talk good of us in the other world  and bless us with further and further progress. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.             

 

b. Oblations to grandfather

 

1.Hey gods who love  water  , carry suitable food, nectar, ghee, blood and toddy to my manes if by chance  they are born as men, tree, creeper and men of the lower caste and make it suitable food for them  and also become food for them. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of Rudra.

 

2.I salute my father, grand father and great grand father who like the food called swadha which is mixed with water and offer them the food which is swadha. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Rudra.

 

3.Hey God of fire who is all knowing, You know my manes who are present here, who are not present here, those who are known to me  because they departed not long ago, those are not known to me, . Please take this food with water, which I am offering to them and let all my manes become happy. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grand  father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Rudra

 

c. Oblations to great grandfather

 

  1.Let air do me  (who is offering these oblations) good  and rivers and medicinal plants  give me sweetness  I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grand  father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Adhithya.

 

2.Let night and day do me good. Let earth give me sweetness and very good quality food. Let the sky , which is like my father not trouble me with no rain or excess rain  and grant me pure pleasure. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Adhithya.

 

3.Let trees bless me by giving fruits. Let Sun god give me energy without much hot weather. Let cows give me sweet milk. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  adhitya.

 

d, e. f. Mother , grandmother , great grandmother[28]

    Three oblations  each are offered without any “riks(prayer chant) to the lady ancestors with the manthra

“I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my mother (grand mother, great grand mother) whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.(Rudra for grand mother, Adithya for great grand mother.) “ 

 

10.Oblations to unknown manes of the father’s side.

   This is offered thrice with the chant.

“I offer this swadha food which is mixed with water to my known and unknown manes of my paternal side.”

Hey gods who love  water  , carry suitable food, nectar, ghee, blood and toddy to my manes if by chance  they are born as men, tree, creeper and men of the lower caste and make it suitable food for them  and also become food for them. Oh manes please get satisfied, please get satisfied and please get satisfied.

 

  The Tharpanam for the manes of the maternal grandfather side(11 and 12)  is  same as that of paternal side except the manes of the maternal grand fathers side are mentioned so as to avoid repetition this meaning is not given/

 

13.Pradakshinam

 

    Salutations to gods, manes and great sages.

    Salutations to food, fire sacrifice daily

 

The meaning of the alternate manthra:-

Oh manes salutations ,

To your spirit,

Your strength,

Your soul,

Your food, which is swadha,

Your anger,

And your strong punishment.

Let those people whom you are with ,

Obey you.

You kindly do as per our wishes.

Please be friends to those whom you are

With in Pithru loka and be a good home for them.

For those who are in this earth,

Let me a good home.

 

.

14.Namaskaram (Salutations)

 

Salutations to father-grand father and great grandfather,

Salutations to mother-grand mother-great grandmother

Salutations to maternal grandfather, his father and his grand father

Salutations to maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother and great grandmother of maternal grandfather.

 

The meaning of alternate manthra.

 

Oh manes who are great in blessing and in action,

Be pleased to depart by either the old way

or through the land of yama or any other way,

Please grant us wealth and good luck.

Please tell the Vasu, adhithya and devathas,

About the food that I offered you.

 

15.Udwasanam

 

         This is the same as Avahana  manthra except that the manes are asked to go their place and are requested to come again and again.

16.Sarva Tharpanam.(general oblations)

 

  Let all those manes who do not have mother, father, friends , others of their family  or even others belonging to other gotras  to do tharpanam for them  partake this water mixed with gingely and be satisfied., be satisfied, be satisfied.

 

17.Brahmarpanam

    I do give all this to the great god Brahma so that faults are pardoned.

 

II Brahma Yagnam

     This is supposed to be done by all Brahmins daily after Madhyahnikam. This is a worship of Vedas and honouring and satifying the devas, rishis and Pithrus.The Manthra starting with “Vidhyudhasi….” Means

Oh God, you are the lightning which is in between the clouds and you know my sins.and I seek the part of that power of yours. Daily.

The vedic chants have the following meaning:-

1.I worship the god of fire  who is the first god in all fire sacrifices, who is the one who conducts and who is the conductior of the fire sacrifice and who is capable of giving all wealth.(Rik Veda)

2.Oh calves of cows, To supply us food as well as make us worship god, you graze and return. Let the god savithru give you good grazing(Yajur veda)

3.Oh God of fire, be pleased to come.You should be pleased accept our worship.Please make the fire sacrifice that we do to the devas.(sama veda)

4.Oh Gods who like water, Apart from quenching our thirsts, you should fulfill all our desires and grant us good things.By your grace let sorrow vanish from our lives  and let happiness come.(atharvana Veda)

Meaning for the sloka starting with “Vrushtirasi….”

You are rain,You will cut off my sins,.

   After this several oblation is offered to devas, rishis, Vedas and pithrus.

 

 

Appendix

1.Names of Nakshatras in Sanskrit for sankalpa

 

  S.No                      Tamil               Malayalam         Sanskrit

  1.                           Aswathi             Aswini              Aswini

  2.                           Bharani              Bharani             Apabharani

  3.                           Karthigai .          Karthiga            Kruthiga

  4.                           Rohini                Rohini               Rohinee

  5.                           Mriga Siarm      Mageeram         Mriga Seersha

  6.                           Thiruvathirai      Thiruvathira      Arudhra

  7.                            Punarpoosam     Punartham        Punarvasu

  8.                            Poosam              Pooyam             Pushya

  9.                            Ayilyam             Ayilyam            Aslesha

  10.                          Magam               Makam             Magha

  11.                          Pooram               Pooram             Poorva  phalguni

  12.                          Uthiram              Uthram             Uthra Phalguni

  13.                          Haastham            Atham              Hastha

  14.                          Chithirai              Chithra             Chitra

  15.                          Swathi                 Swathi              Swathi

   16.                         Vishagam            Vishakam         Vishaka

   17.                         Anusham             Anizham          Anuradha

   18.                          Kettai                   Ketta                Jyeshta

   19.                          Moolam               Moolam           Moola

   20                           Pooradam             Pooradam        Poorvashada

    21.                         Uthradam             Uthradam         Uthrashada

    22.                         Thiruvonam         Thiruvonam      Sravana

    23.                         Avittam                Avittam            Sravishta

    24.                         Chathayam           Chathayam       Satha bishak

    25..                        Poororattathi        Poororattathi     Poorva proshta pada

    26                          Uthrattathi           Uthrattathi         Uthara proshtapada

    27.                         Revathy               Revathy             Revathee.         

 

 2. .Names of days of week in Sanskrit for sankalpa 

 

1.Sunday-   Bhanuvasara

2.Monday- Induvasara

3.Tuesday-Bhouma vasara

4.Wednesday-Soumya vasara

5.Thursday- Guru vasara

6.Friday-  Brugu vasara

7.Saturday- Sthiravasara

 

3. .Names of  months in Sanskrit for sankalpa

 

S.No                 Tamil                Malayalam                       Sanskrit

 1.                    Chitthirai            Medam                              Mesham

 2                      Vaikasi              Edavam                              Rishabha

 3                       Aani                  Midhunam                         Midhuna

 4                       Aadi                  Karkidagam                       Karkada

 5                       Aavani               Chingam                           Simham

 6                       Puratasi              Kanni                                Kanya

 7                       Iyppasi               Thulam                             Thula

 8                       Karthigai            Vrischigam                       Vrucchiga

 9                       Margazhi             Dhanu                               Dhanu

 10                     Thai                    Makaram                          Makara

 11                      Masi                   Kumbham                         Kumbha

 12                      Panguni              Meenam                             Meena

 

4.Names of the seasons

 

1.Vasantha Ruthu       Chithirai-Vaikasi       Medam-edavam

2,Greeshma Rithu       Aani-Aadi                  Mithunam-karkidagam

3.Varsha Rithu            Aavani-purattasi        Chingam-Kanni

4.Sarad Rithu               Ippasi-Karthigai        Thulam-Vrischigam

5.Hemantha Rithu        Margazhi-Thai           Dhanu-Makaram

6.Sishira Rithu              Maasi-Panguni          Kumbham-Meenam

.                                .       

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

* Meaning of the manthras at the end.

* Please refer Panchangam(almanac) for the names or get the particulars.For Sanskrit names refer at the end of compilation.These particulars for every tharpanam is given in www.keralaiyers.com and www.brahmanas.org .

** It is recommended that you substitute these names in various places and take a print out for your use .Contact family elders if you do not know this information.

[1] Names of grand mother, great grand mother, Fathers great grand mother if mother is alive

[2] In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa

[3] In case mother’s mother is alive , this would be  mathamahasya mathu-pithamahi-prapithamahischa

[4] Mesharavi punya kale for tharpanam done on Mesha sankramam(chittirai-makaram first)Karkadaga ravi punya kale( for tharpanam done during adi=Karkidaga Sankramam(Adi first), Thula ravi punya kale for tharpanam done during thula masam first(Iyppasi first), makara ravi punya kale for tharpanam done on makara sankramam(Thai first), Suryoparaga punya kale for tharpanam done during solar eclipse, Somoparaga punyakale for tharpanam done during Lunar eclipse and In case of Paraheni tharpanam done after Sraddham, “Purvedya maya krutha  mathru pithru  prathyabdhika  sradhangam thila tharpanam karishye. Please note in case of paraheni tharpanam, the offering(tharpanam) is made to only paternal side pithrus.

[5]In some families they only use one koorcham.

[6] People using only one koorcha, please do avahanam chanting “Asmin koorche vargodhaya pithroon dhyayami avahayami”

 

[7] In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa

[8] In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa

[9] In case mother’s mother is alive , this would be  mathamahasya mathu-pithamahi-prapithamahischa

[10] Some books say “ pitharo manoja vaso  agnishwatha”

[11] Some books say “ madantho adhi bruvanthu”

[12] If mother is alive instead of mathru tharpanam perform pithamahi tharpanam.In the manthras replace mathu with pithamahi.

[13] If mother is alive instead of pithamahi tharpanam perform prapithamahi tharpanam.In the manthras replace pithamahi with prapithamahi

[14] If mother is alive instead of prapithamahi tharpanam perform pithru prapithamahi tharpanam.In the manthras replace prapitha mahi with pithru prapithamahi.

[15] If maternal grand mother is alive instead of matha mahi   tharpanam perform matha mahasya mathu tharpanam.In the manthras replace mathamahi  with mathamahasya mathu.

[16] If maternal grand mother is alive instead of  mathu pithamahi tharpanam perform matha mahasya pithamahi tharpanam.In the manthras replace mathu pithamahi with matha mahasya pithamahi

[17] If maternal grand mother is alive instead of mathu prapithamahi tharpanam perform mathamahasya prapithamahi tharpanam.In the manthras replace prapitha mahi with matha mahasya prapithamahi.

[18] If mother is alive recite Pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithru prapapitha maheebhyo nama

[19] If maternal grand mother is alive then Mathamahasya mathu-mathamahasya pithamahi-matha mahasya prapithamaheebhyo nama.

[20] People doing tharpanam on one koorcham  chant” Asmad koorchat  vargodhaya pithrun  yadastanam prathishtapayami.”

[21] In case mother is alive, this would be pithamahi-prapithamahi-pithruprapithamahischa

[22] In case mother’s mother is alive , this would be  mathamahasya mathu-pithamahi-prapithamahischa

[23] Some books say “ Yesham na matha na pitha na mithra gnanthi bandhawa “ and some others say “yesham na pitha na bratha na puthro na anya gothrina”

[24] grand mother, great grand mother, fathers great grand mother in case mother is alive

[25] grand mother, great grand mother and father’s great grand mother in case mother is alive.

[26] Maternal grand father’s mother, maternal grand fathers  grand mother, maternal grand fathers great grand mother in case maternal grand mother is alive

[27] Maternal grand father’s mother, maternal grand fathers  grand mother, maternal grand fathers great grand mother in case maternal grand mother is alive

[28] Grand mother, great grand mother and fathers great grand mother in case mother is alive.


 

QUOTE

We have published books, brought out cassettes and CDs for learning and teaching the heritage of our motherland.  You can get the details from the Institute in the following address.

Indian Institute of Scientific Heritage
Ushus, Estate Road, Pappanamcode,
Trivandrum 695 018, Kerala, India 

From,
Friends of
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENTIFIC HERITAGE, MCT

  References

  1. Srisa Chandra Vidyarnva, The Daily Practice of the Hindus, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers (P) Ltd.,New Delhi, 1991

  2. Rajbali Pandey., HIndu Samskaras, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers (P) Ltd., New Dejhi, 1969

  3. Hindu Way of Life

 

 




 

 

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